Statistics and Figures

A person waving a transgender flag

Trans Adults

10x number of referrals for trans health services in 2016 compared to 2011. Rising demand for trans care, socioeconomic disadvantage, and high burden of mental health conditions warrants a multidisciplinary approach to provide optimal care. Psychosocial interventions may assist individuals in navigating health care needs and social transitions. Further studies are required to understand links between ASD, ADHD, and gender identity and to evaluate optimal models of health service provision for transgender individuals.

Data taken from the 2018 study, Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Transgender Adults in Australia. Cheung et al. Transgender Health 2018.

53.4% of trans people have a uni degree. 38.5% of cis people have a uni degree.
21.3% of trans people face unemployment. 5.4% of cis people face unemployment.
55.7% of trans people face depression. 7.9% of cis people experience depression.
40.4% of trans people experience anxiety, compared to 16.3% of cis people.
4.3% of trans people have ADHD, compared to 1.1% of cis people.
88.3% of people undergo psychological or psychiatric assessment before hormone replacement therapy.
5.9% of trans men have had a hysterectomy. 94.1% have not.
40% of trans men have had a mastectomy. 60% have not.
0.4% of trans men have undergone phalloplasty. 99.6% have not.
3.1% of trans women have undergone breast augmentation. 96.9% have not.
18.4% of trans women have undergone vaginoplasty or an orchidectomy. 81.6% have not.
2.6% of trans women have undergone facial feminisation surgery. 97.4% have not.
1% of non-binary people have undergone orchidectomy. 99% have not.
12.1% of non-binary people have had a mastectomy performed on them. 87.9% have not.
1% of non-binary people have undergone a laryngeal shave. 99% have not.
A man lies in a hospital bed as a doctor speaks to him

Health Needs

Experiences include: Incorrect pronouns being used by healthcare providers and receptionists. Inappropriate and irrelevant questions about patients’ transgender experiences. Incorrect focus on patients’ transgender status as a cause of any presenting mental and medical health issues. Transgender people being unable to dictate their own hormonal transitions. Inability to afford medically-necessary operations.

Overall findings highlight a pressing need for better training for healthcare professionals in trans healthcare, to improve access to care for the community.

Data taken from Health Needs of Trans and Gender Diverse Adults in Australia: A Qualitative Analysis of a National Community Survey. Zwickl et al. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019. Led by two trans researchers Sav Zwickl and Alex Wong.


Adult trans respondents


Trans female


Trans male






Trans people who have experienced severely lacking knowledge among healthcare providers


Trans people with a regular primary care doctor


Trans people who want further research in mental health and neurological indicators

Issues and Suggestions Include:

Trans-specific training for all kinds of healthcare professionals, including doctors, therapists, and specialists

Medical advances including surgical techniques, hormone effects, risks and alternative treatments

Medical interventions and ongoing support for trans people who are years into their medical transitions

Further research into hormone blockers to reduce the stigma around their use, and increase their safety

Further understanding of the correlation between Autism disorders and transgender identities

Further understanding of non-binary identities and social transitions, including the use of pronouns

The use of Telehealth to support trans people in remote and rural areas, who suffer from lack of access

A person holding a palmful of pills

Hormone Therapy

Anecdotally, both in clinics and on online forums, there was wide discrepancy in trans hormone prescription. We conducted this study to try to document how doctors were prescribing hormone therapy in Australia. We targeted AusPATH members as we thought they would be the most experienced in trans health. The responses were pretty homogenous so the people who actually prescribe differently (like people who give estrogen implants or those that aim for very high estrogen levels), may have not responded to our survey. This is a limitation.

Cross-Sex Hormone Therapy in Australia: the Prescription Patterns of Clinicians Experienced in Adult Transgender Healthcare. Bretherton et al. Internal Medicine Journal 2018.


AusPATH members experienced in hormone prescription








Supported development of Australian guidelines, later created by THR


Used Testosterone Undecanoate injections (Reandron)


Used Oral Estradiol Valerate (Progynova)


Targeted hormone reference ranges of the affirmed gender

71.4% monitored trans patients every 2-3 months during the 1st year of hormones.
76% tested testosterone levels throughout masculinising HRT. 61% tested estradiol levels.
71% used estradiol validate. 8.6% used transdermal estradiol patch. 3% used other feminising meds.
49% used testosterone undecanoate. 31% used testosterone enantate. 14% used gel or cream.
45% wanted better training for doctors as a funding priority. 24% wanted more gender clinics.
80% had patients undergo mental health assessment before HRT. Assessment or informed consent, 20%.
An androgynous person breastfeeding their child

Trans Healthcare

Recommended: Incorporation of trans health into medical school and endocrine training curricula. Training or lectures delivered should be designed by experienced clinicians in collaboration with trans community members. Inclusion of community voices allows an understanding of health issues and barriers faced by the community.

Data taken from Australian Endocrinologists Need More Training in Transgender Health: A National Survey. Bretherton et al. Clinical Endocrinology 2020.


Clinical Endocrine Society of Australia members








Endocrinologists who feel comfortable commencing gender-affirming hormone therapy


Endocrinologists who want more training in trans medicine


Medical students who have training in trans medicine


Endocrinologists who have training in trans medicine


Endocrinologists who have low confidence in performing a trans consultation


Endocrinologists who have seen 1-4 trans patients in their career


Endocrinologists who have never seen a trans patient throughout their career


Endocrinologists who feel comfortable treating trans patients

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